Eurojust assists Hungary and Switzerland in dismantling human trafficking network European Union Agency for Criminal Justice Cooperation

Forged from a partnership between a university press and a library, Project MUSE is a trusted part of the academic and scholarly community it serves. One woman, ‘Bernadett’, told Amnesty International how she was called into a meeting after telling her employer she was pregnant. “They told me that my salary was too high, so we could either sign a new contract with a lower salary, so I could go on maternity leave and get the benefits, or we should terminate the employment relationship.” She was forced to sign a contract and left the company. This has particularly affected pregnant women who find their contracts terminated once their employers learn of their pregnancy. Despite protections against such dismissals being enshrined in the Hungarian Labour Code, employers without any substantive evidence often allege inappropriate conduct by the employee or find another unjustified reason to allow them to terminate the pregnant worker’s contract.

  • According to the survey of Maloney EK et al., laywomen preferred the internet to doctors to gather information about BC screening.
  • Access to it was tightened in recent years under the Law and Justice party, Hungary’s conservative nationalist ally, triggering major protests.
  • The measure, signed off by Interior Minister Sandor Pinter, obliges pregnant women seeking a termination to first obtain a report from an obstetrician-gynaecologist, stating that they have been confronted “in a clearly identifiable way” with the “vital functions” of the foetus.

They also took up their pens, and in Hungary, women produced the “Demands of the Radical Hungarian Women,” which appeared in a newspaper in late April. This twenty-four-point petition, reprinted below in English translation and the original Hungarian, addresses issues common to women across Europe in 1848. Conditioned by the context in which it appeared, the petition places emphasis on displays of Hungarian patriotism and support for national culture.

Hungary says Sweden should ‘act differently’ if it wants to join NATO

Bring her flowers, write her love letters, and do other things to make her feel special. If you are looking to date a Hungarian woman, there are a few things you should know. They know how to take care of themselves, and they aren’t afraid to stand up for what they believe in. As the first step of production, our team of epidemiologists indicated the main areas of interest and phrased index questions accordingly. Then, the set of questions was revised by an oncologist to validate the medical content. The English-language version of the questionnaire is provided in Appendix as Additional file.

In line with the EU Framework for Roma integration, Hungary adopted a national Roma integration strategy in 2011, which was implemented up to 2020. It adopted a second such strategy in 2021 to be implemented from 2022 to 2030.

One of the most conspicuous differences with its previous strategy is that the new one does not contain a separate section dedicated to the situation of Roma women and girls. Instead, this issue is more mainstreamed and more or less addressed in different areas, such as early education, employment, youth issues, and identity. While the new EU strategic framework includes many novelties, the new Hungarian strategy starts by stating that its goals have not changed too much and that the planned measures will rely on the already existing structures. The main goal remains to tackle poverty and to reduce the disadvantages poor people face in Hungary’s poorest regions. The state will put more emphasis on climate change, mental health, digitalization, and cross-border cooperation.

Eurojust assists Hungary and Switzerland in dismantling human trafficking network

Another important issue for women in the early 1990s was the restriction of abortion rights by conservative political parties. The Feminist Network, which emerged in May 1990, has been a leader in carrying on the movement for women’s equality, and the Federation of Young Democrats has been an important political party for female youth and women’s movements. The issue of domestic violence has also come to public attention during the past two decades; an important change was the removal of the marital exemption from the rape law in 1997. Hungary has also ratified the Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings in 2013. In December 2020, Hungary’s Family Minister, Katalin Novák, published a video, lecturing women on how to achieve success, advising, among else, not to expect to get an equal pay. Although BSE should be started more than two decades earlier than mammography (20 years vs. 45 years, respectively), most respondents were unaware of this. These results corroborate the findings of the study of Do Thi Thanh Toan et al. from North-Vietnam, in which only 19.3% of the respondents knew when to perform the first BSE .

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In the section on early-childhood education, the new strategy states that “Disadvantaged women, especially Roma women, need to be encouraged to become foster parents.” This was not mentioned in the first one. According to research from 2011 by the European Rights Center, which the strategy also cites, Roma children in Hungary are overrepresented in the state care system.14The removal of Roma children from their families due to poverty and related consequences is a major issue in the country. However, instead of acknowledging the fact that racism and systematic oppression has an equal or even much greater role in the removal of Roma children from their homes, the strategy puts the emphasis on the responsibility of Roma parents and their mistreatment of children. In 1904, Rózsika Bédy-Schwimmer , a pacifist and women’s rights advocate, founded the Association of Feminists.

Therefore, the RCM also provides one of the best opportunities for Roma gender experts to engage in this process and raise questions, to challenge different political and civic actors, and to provide their expertise to better implement the new Roma integration strategy in Hungary. Roma women, feminist, and LGBTQA+ organizations should thus be empowered and financially supported to take part in the RCM where they could provide their expertise on gender issues. The strategy implies that there are cultural and social characteristics that affect Roma women and girls in their communities and, therefore, that they should be assisted by an outsider mentor who helps them to overcome these characteristics. The strategy does not state clearly what these characteristics are, but throughout it gives a sense of what this refers to.

Eszter Szabo was troubled by how to accumulate more local capital in the global innovation competition. Women were the answer; she founded Women / Business / Angels, an NGO facilitating and promoting women’s engagement in innovation decision-making. Magda Szabo is a Hungarian novelist with publications in 42 countries in over 30 languages.

For Roma girls, the problem comes later during their education, sometimes when they reach their teenage years. The FRA report shows that in the nine countries 66 percent of Roma boys between the ages of 16 and 24 neither attend secondary school nor get any form of employment, but the situation is worse for Roma girls at 71 percent.

There has been great work invested into improving the situation of Roma women by the EU institutions, Europe’s Roma civil society, Roma and pro-Roma experts, and national governments, and that has influenced Hungary. It is counterproductive to rely on old and false assumptions about Roma culture and traditions. It is not right to forget about Roma lesbian, bisexual, trans women, and other Roma women from the LGBTQA+ community. If national integration strategies leave out repeatedly certain groups of people, there will be never a true and whole dedication and commitment to improving the situation of Roma women. Roma women, even just taking the example of Hungary, form a very diverse group in terms of the situation they face, which should determine what kind of approach and measures need to be taken to improve their situation. There is no one-size-fits-all approach toward any minority issues because the problems are complex and structural. While there are no perfect strategies, governments have to make sure that they do their best.

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